Agr. Stevenson, F. J., Organic acids in soil, In Soil Biochemistry, Part I (A.D.McLaren and G. H.Peterson Eds., Marcel Dekker N. Symposium, February 1964. Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the important abiotic factors limiting rice productivity worldwide and also a widespread nutritional disorder affecting human health. 3, 97–191 (1966). Queensland J. Agr. Since much of the Philippines is derived from lime-stones and coral reefs, zinc deficiency of rice ought to occur in the Philippines. Zinc (Zn) is an indispensable element for rice growth. Reasons Bronzing symptoms of zinc deficiency on rice leaf. and Plant Nutrition 15, 75–80 (1969). Zn NP induced antioxidant changes of germinating rice seeds Am. SedberryJr., J. E., Engler, R. M., Peterson, F. J. and Wilson, F. E., The effects of additions of zinc and limestone of the yield and chemical composition of rice. II. (John Hopkins Press, Baltimore, Maryland) pp. (Chronica Botanica Co., Waltham, Mass., U.S.A.) pp. Agr. The level and properties of calcium in soils and its influence on zinc availability. ... Zinc fortified rice for India and Bangladesh (2013) Widespread occurrence of zinc deficiency and response to application of Zn by rice plants in different rice growing countries in the world have been reported (Yoshida et al., 1973; Giordano and Mortvedt, 1974; Kang and Okoro, 1976). Soil Sci. 1. 2007a). Zn deficiency results in brown blotches and streaks 2 to 3 weeks after transplanting, as well as stunting, reduced tillering, and low productivity of rice … Plant and Soil 42, 551–563 (1975). Solution culture studies with the variety IR8 showed that with a bicarbonate concentration of only 15 mM, transport of zinc to the shoots was reduced by more than 70 per cent. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, p. 134–137, 155–157 (1970). Deficiency due to a diet low in zinc is uncommon in developed countries. As depicted in figure 1, the morphological changes i.e., length of radical and plumule was shown in response to Zn NP treatment when subjected to 0 … Aerobic rice is currently bred by crossing lowland with upland rice genotypes, for growth in an aerobic cultivation system, which is saving water and producing high yields. Rice is sensitive to Zn deficiency; it is the most widespread micronutrient disorder in rice. A., Ammonium bicarbonate in plant nutrition. The lack of dietary diversity among poor communities has led to nutritional consequences, particularly micronutrient deficiencies. Fe and Zn deficiencies are widespread and affect millions of Filipinos across ages and social strata with health and economic consequences. Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa). Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa). Jurinak, J. J. and Thorne, D. W., Zinc solubility under alkaline conditions in a zinc-bentonite system. BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread soil constraints affecting rice productivity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Zn deficiency response is still limited. Am. In Pakistan, the most recent national nutrition survey indicated that over 40% of women are zinc deficient. Zinc deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient disorder in rice. Zinc is an immobile nutrient in the soil and for early season or post-flood applications the rice typically has not fully canopied and much fo the soil surface remains exposed. Zinc nutrition also modulates drought induced growth and antioxidant dysfunction in plant and mitigates dehydration induced damages and improves post stress rehydration responses in plant [30,36]. Goss, J. Paddy soil conditions are usually not favorable for the availability of zinc and hence zinc deficiency has been reported countrywide in rice soils (Bhatti and Rashid, 1985). Zinc deficiency of rice is widespread throughout Asia on neutral to alkaline calcareous soils which contain more than 1 percent organic matter. Lockard, R. G., Ballaux, J. C. and Liongson, E. A., Response of rice plants grown in three potted Luzon soils to additions of boron, sulfur and zinc. Those who can afford meat do not need to worry, meat has the necessary zinc required. / Eliminating zinc deficiency in rice-based systems.Washington D.C., USA : VFRC, 2014. Zinc deficiency is more common among older people who live in institutions and people who are homebound. Duffner, A. ; Hoffland, E.; Stomph, T.J.; Boonstra, A.; Bindraban, P.S. Filipinos depend on rice as their main source of nutrition. Several studies have investigated how rice plants respond to Zn deficiency and examined the differences between Zn-efficient (ZE) and Zn-inefficient (ZI) genotypes. Calif. Div. Water Pollut. Soil Sci. Areas with zinc deficient soils are often regions with widespread zinc deficiency in humans. Forno, D. A., Asher, C. J. and Yoshida, S., Zinc deficiency in rice. Rice is sensitive to Zn deficiency; it is the most widespread micronutrient disorder in rice. 295–328 (1964). Role of rice F-bZIPs in the zinc deficiency response The role of the three rice F-bZIPs in the Zn deficiency response was investigated. Subscription will auto renew annually. Zinc deficiency affects around 17% of the world’s population, mostly in developing countries. pp. Enhancing the contents of iron and zinc in cereal grains will … Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa). 64, 444–447 (1972). Zinc deficiency of rice is widespread throughout Asia on neutral to alkaline calcareous soils which contain more than 1 percent organic matter. International Rice Research Institute. Ind. Soc. A large portion of its population depends on rice for their daily caloric intake and nutritional needs. Some plants like grains and beans contain phytate or phytic acid which binds to zinc and prevents its absorption. Zinc has been particularly missing in the rice of Bangladesh. Here, we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. (In Japanese). Symptoms Soil Sci. Zinc availibility decreases after flooding. Now the fifth leading factor in widespread disease worldwide, zinc deficiency is responsible for a rise in mortality rates in undeveloped nations due to connections to childhood diarrhea and pneumonia. Background Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the important abiotic factors limiting rice productivity worldwide and also a widespread nutritional disorder affecting human health. With ongoing deficiency the complete leaf blade turns bronze to brown. : The International Rice Research Institute, Philippines, Senior Lecturer in Plant Physiology, Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread soil constraints affecting rice productivity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Zn deficiency response is still limited. : - High pH (formation of Zn(OH)2) - Precipitation of ZnS in anaerobic conditions. Effects of zinc deficiency on rice growth and genetic factors contributing to tolerance. Am. Soil and Plant Food 2, 63–66 (1956). Developing tissues such as meristems and reproductive organs require high zinc, but the molecular mechanisms of how zinc taken up by the roots is preferentially delivered to these tissues with low transpiration are unknown. “[So we believe that rice containing higher zinc levels] should be considered for populations that consume mostly parboiled or highly polished rice, [and also that] despite some known nutritional benefits of parboiled rice, for populations with high zinc deficiency it is prudent to promote the consumption of non-parboiled over parboiled rice.” Despite these differences, the two varieties appeared equally susceptible to zinc deficiency during the first four weeks of growth under field conditions. Delaying planting for 12 weeks after soil submergence to allow bicarbonate (and organic acid) concentrations to fall increased zinc uptake from three soils by from 53 to 84 per cent. pp. Zinc-deficient soils constrain rice production and cause Zn-malnutrition. - Excessive liming. Hoagland, D. R., Micronutrient chemical elements and plant growth. Proc. Soils particularly prone to zinc deficiency include: • Neutral and calcareous soils containing large quantities of bicarbonate. Studies on two varieties differing in susceptibility to zinc deficiency. Background: Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread soil constraints affecting rice productivity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Zn deficiency response is still limited. In Pakistan, the most recent national nutrition survey indicated that over 40% of women are zinc deficient. Ponnamperuma, F. N., Dynamic aspects of flooded soils. Rice grains usually contain just 2-5 parts per million (ppm) of iron. Moreover many genes involved in starch synthesis/transport were up-regulated by Zn deficiency in rice … Duncan, O. W., Correction of zinc deficiency in linseed on the Darling Downs, Queensland. Tanaka, A. and Yoshida, S., Nutritional disorders of the rice plant in Asia. Image 5390487 is of zinc deficiency symptoms on rice. 33, 356–365 (1961). Various independent studies have shown that foliar fertilization is a more effective approach than base fertilisers for the correction of zinc deficiency in rice (Zhang et al., 2018; Jaksomsak et al., 2018) and at the same time fortifies the plant with zinc that is bio available for human nutrition. and Plant Nutrition (Japan) 13, 25–30 (1967). Here, we report a detailed study of the impact of Zn deficiency on crown root development of rice genotypes, differing in their tolerance to this stress. Many studies have identified Zn-efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. The International Rice Research Institute. Microarray analysis of Zn deficient rice revealed the up-regulation of several genes involved in Zn transport. Annual Report for 1970. Proc. In China, zinc deficiency occurs on around half of the agricultural soils, affecting mainly rice and maize. Proc. These consequences necessitate the design and evaluation of effective programs and policies for reducing micronutrient deficiencies. 89, 296–302 (1960). 53–57 (1972). - High HCO3- concentration In this review the diagnosis and correction of Zn deficiency in several important crops in a wide range of soils has been discussed. Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the leading nutrient disorders in rice (Oryza sativa). Hodgson, J. F., Chemistry of the micronutrient elements in soils. Biofortification is an attractive … pp. Prakhorov, V. M. and Gromova, Ye. Am. (Ed. Older leaves show a bronze tint starting from the leaf margins while the midrib remains green for a longer time. It is by Donald Groth at Louisiana State University AgCenter. Agron. Plant and Soil 16, 347–360 (1962). Annual Report for 1971. Shiratori, K., Suzuki, T. and Miyoshi, H., (On a disease of rice plant similar to “Akagare” occurring in paddy field soil dredged from Tone River.) Zinc is an immobile nutrient in the soil and for early season or post-flood applications the rice typically has not fully canopied and much fo the soil surface remains exposed. Under severe Zn deficiency, tillering decreases or may even stop. A Zn deficient clay soil was used in our screening. Zn is deficient in 50% of the world’s agricultural soils and is . Zn deficiency can be caused by many factors, e.g. Bull. Zinc deficiency in rice. Zn deficiency resulted in a marked decrease in shoot dry matter production of most genotypes after 28 days of growth. 1. 26–47 (1948). Research 19, 859–868 (1968). Calif. Div. Soil analysis has proven to be an J. Sci. Its occurrence has increased with the introduction of modern varieties, crop intensification and increased zinc removal. Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for living organisms, and understanding the molecular mechanisms of Zn deficiency may help to develop strategies to mitigate this problem. and Plant Nutrition (Japan) 17, 83–87 (1971). J. Soc. 34, 405–407 (1970). Zn deficiency can be caused by many factors, e.g. “[So we believe that rice containing higher zinc levels] should be considered for populations that consume mostly parboiled or highly polished rice, [and also that] despite some known nutritional benefits of parboiled rice, for populations with high zinc deficiency it is prudent to promote the consumption of non-parboiled over parboiled rice.” 10, 35–36, 39–40 (1970). Rice is one of the most important staple crops worldwide and a growing world population will lead to an increasing demand for food in the upcoming years. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, p. 43–46 (1972). N ENE (1) was the first to show that a foliar application of zinc sulfate corrects a disorder of the rice plant long known as Khaira disease in North-Central India. Read our privacy policy. The Philippines is one of the major rice-producing and rice-consuming countries of Asia. It is therefore, imperative to apply zinc to such Part of Springer Nature. Aerobic rice is currently bred by crossing lowland with upland rice genotypes, for growth in an aerobic cultivation system, which is saving water and producing high yields. 9, 31–65 (1957). Soil Sci. Growth and zinc content of plants. Soviet Soil Sci. International Rice Research Institute. … The researchers were aiming to increase that to at least 13 ppm to address iron … Causes of Zinc Deficiency . H idden hunger, or micronutrient deficiency, is a leading global problem. Yoshida, S., Forno, D. A., Cock, J. H. and Gomez, K., In Laboratory Manual for Physiological Studies of Rice, (2nd Ed. Proc. Navrot, J., and Ravikovitch, S., Zinc availability in calcareous soils: III. Incidence of the deficiency appears more closely related to zinc availability than to total zinc content of the soil, and spontaneous recoveries of affected crops are common. Karim, A. Q. M. B. and Vlamis, J., Micronutrient deficiency symptoms of rice in nutrient culture solutions. Dark brown to reddish spots appear on the slightly chlorotic young leaf. Zinc deficiency is most prevalent in alkaline/calcareous, inherently low organic carbon, heavily limed, light textured, salt prone, and waterlogged soils. Bull. What is the role of Zinc (Zn) in plants. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines Tech. Soc. The research initiated within the JIRCAS abiotic stress project led to the identification of several QTL associated with tolerance to Zn deficiency. Caroll, M. D. and Loneragan, J. F., Response of plant species to concentrations of zinc in solution I. 33, 62–68 (1969). Zinc deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient disorder in rice. These reports indicate that zinc deficiency in rice is prevalent in soils ranging from about neutral to alkaline, and, in particular, in calcareous soils. Soil Sci. Control Fed. Studies have suggested a simple way to overcome zinc deficiency in humans is by applications of zinc to crops like rice. Zinc (Zn) deficiency was first identified as a field problem in rice in 1966 ().It is now widely recognized as one of the most widespread soil constraints in rice production, with as much as 50% of all lowland rice soils prone to Zn deficiency (Sillanpaa, 1990, White and Zasoski, 1999).In a survey of 14 sites in the Philippines, Van Breemen et al. Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range. A Zn deficient clay soil was used in our screening. Lindsay, W. I. and Norwell, W. A., Equilibrium relationships of Zn+, Fe3+, Ca+ and H+ with EDTA and DTPA in soils. Zn is only slightly mobile in the plant and quite immobile in soil. Chiba Agr. What is Zinc Deficiency? Thorne, W., Zinc deficiency and its control. Udo, E. J., Bohn, H. L. and Tucker, T. C., Zinc adsorption by calcareous soils. This article explains everything you need to know about zinc, its functions, benefits, the risk of deficiency and potential side effects. In Lectures on the Inorganic Nutrition of Plants. The Rice Journal 72, 76–77 (1969). Incidence of the deficiency appears more closely related to zinc availability than to total zinc content of the soil, and … Zinc rates used were 0, 5, 10 20, 40, 80, and 120 mg Zn kg −1 of soil applied to an Inceptisol. 9, 73–81 (1969). More than half of the soils in Mali are affected and approximately 80% of the population is considered to have an insufficient zinc intake. volume 42, pages537–550(1975)Cite this article. This article explains everything you need to know about zinc, its functions, benefits, the risk of deficiency and potential side effects. Trierweiler, J. F. and Lindsay, W. L., EDTA-ammonium carbonate soil test for Zn. Zinc availibility decreases after flooding. The high dependence on rice and the lack of diversity in the diet have led to nutritional and health problems, particularly micronutrient deficiencies. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. It means many people who depend on rice as a staple food are effectively being starved of essential micronutrients such as iron, zinc and pro-vitamin A.. Nutritionists call it "hidden hunger." Soils receiving high phosphorus application, Efficient photosynthesis (sugar production). While severe zinc deficiency is rare in industrialised nations, the World Health Organization estimates that nearly half the world's popular suffers from zinc deficiency. Zinc (Zn) is an indispensable element for rice growth. Zinc Deficiency (Hudda disease - Pakistan, Khaira disease - India). Zinc is an essential plant nutrient required for several biochemical processes in the rice plant, including chlorophyll production and membrane integrity. Sc.) Introduction. Takai, Y., Koyama, T. and Kamura, T., Microbial metabolism in reduction process of paddy soils I. 108, 30–37 (1969). How to identify. Zn deficiency results in brown blotches and streaks 2 to 3 weeks after transplanting, as well as stunting, reduced tillering, and low productivity of rice plants. Formerly a Research Scholar of the International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. Pratt, P. F., Carbonate and bicarbonate In Diagnotic Criteria for Plants and Soils (H. D. Chapman Ed., Univ. (3)College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China. Zinc deficiency remarkably depressed the zinc concentrations in the meristematic tissues of rice plants. Soil Sci. Under neutral to alkaline conditions, acetic acid at 10 me/l produced only slight reductions in zinc uptake and transport to the shoots. Phytopath Soc. 26, 144–147 (1962). Soc. In laboratory experiments with a known problem soil, bicarbonate concentration reached a peak of 42 mM 5 weeks after soil submergence, and the concentration of organic acids peaked at approximately 10 me/l after 4 weeks. Y. L. N ENE (1) was the first to show that a foliar application of zinc sulfate corrects a disorder of the rice plant long known as Khaira disease in North-Central India. But most cannot in Bangladesh. Does zinc deficiency play a role in stunting among primary school children in NE Thailand? Proc. DiLallo, R. and Albertson, O. E., Volatile acids by direct titration. Animal Sci. 119–146 (1967). Stunted, uneven growth. - 104.171.4.183. CAS  10.1007/s11104-007-9368-4 ; Wissuwa M., Ismail A. M., Yanagihara S. (2006). Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) can affect productivity and cause serious health Zinc Deficiency Do S. MIKKELSON Response of rice to preplant soil application of zinc sulphate, equivalent to supplying 8 pounds of zinc per acre.Note that in the untreated area, the seedling plants failed Di%nosishhcesoils to survive. J. Enhancing this Fe 3+ reduction via mutational‐reconstructed ferric chelate reductase improves yields and confers improved tolerance to iron deficiency when rice plants are grown in calcareous soil (Ishimaru et al. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of determining Zn requirements of lowland rice. Prime Minister Narendra Modi released 17 bio-fortified varieties of eight crops this month on World Food Day, which can increase the nutritional value of food staples three-fold.. We are using cookies to give you the best experience on our website, deliver our services, personalize content, and to analyze traffic. Soil Sci. Yoshida, S., Ahn, J. S. and Forno, D. A., Occurrence, diagnosis and correction of zinc deficiency of lowland rice. Zinc (Zn) deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient disorder in rice (Oryza sativa), but efforts to develop cultivars with improved tolerance have been hampered by insufficient understanding of genetic factors contributing to tolerance. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. Soil Manure, Japan 40, 415–519 (1969) (In Japanese). 15, 119–154 (1963). Now with the World Bank, Washington D. C. Forno, D.A., Yoshida, S. & Asher, C.J. I. Until very recently zinc deficiency of the rice plant had not been shown to occur in the field. Zinc deficiency scenario . Because zinc plays such an important role in your body, the symptoms of a deficiency can show up in a hundred ways. Australian J. Agr. Many conditions can increase the risk of developing zinc deficiency. ), The International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines) pp. Zn deficiency resulted in a marked decrease in shoot dry matter production of most genotypes after 28 days of growth. Zinc (Zn) deficiency was first identified as a field problem in rice in 1966 ().It is now widely recognized as one of the most widespread soil constraints in rice production, with as much as 50% of all lowland rice soils prone to Zn deficiency (Sillanpaa, 1990, White and Zasoski, 1999).In a survey of 14 sites in the Philippines, Van Breemen et al. Zinc deficiency is a widespread problem in Sub-Saharan Africa. Proc. Zinc is used by your body in cell production and immune functions. Soil Sci. Google Scholar. Healthier Rice Varieties High-iron and high-zinc rice Iron and Zinc deficiencies Globally, more than 1.6 billion people are anemic. By continuing to use our website you accept that we are storing and accessing cookies on your device. In fact, zinc deficiency has become so serious around the world that it is responsible for 176,000 diarrhea deaths, 406,000 pneumonia deaths, and 207,000 malaria deaths. In the Mineral Nutrition of the Rice Plant. Using a chelated Zn source allows any of the Zn that does not contact rice leaves to be mobile in the soil and move downward towards the rice roots where it can also be actively taken up by the plant. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines, p. 32–33 (1971). Inadequate intakes and marginal deficiencies are common, too – in a 2000 survey of over 29,000 people in the USA, only 55% had adequate zinc intakes. However, since a decrease in the serum concentration is only detectable after long-term or severe depletion, serum zinc is not a reliable biomarker for zinc status. Agron. 19, 446–448 (1955). Despite these differences, the two varieties appeared equally susceptible to zinc deficiency during the first four weeks of growth under field conditions. - Volume 97 Issue 1 - Rosalind S. Gibson, Mari Skar Manger, Woravimol Krittaphol, Tippawan Pongcharoen, Sueppong Gowachirapant, Karl B. Bailey, Pattanee Winichagoon They don’t eat meat or supplements and stay deficient of zinc. 3, 693–699 (1971). Zinc is a nutrient that plays many vital roles in your body. - Precipitation of ZnS in anaerobic conditions. Tanaka, A. and Navasero, S. A., Carbon dioxide and organic acids in relation to the growth of rice. 484–499 (1966). International Rice Research Institute. - Formation of Zn-phosphates following large applications of P fertilizer. Soil Sci. 33, 49–54, (1969). Adv. Severe yield losses are threatening food security, caused by abiotic stresses such as zinc deficiency, a widespread micronutrient disorder … Yoshida, S., Forno, D. A. and Bhadrachalam, A., Zinc deficiency of the rice plant on calcareous and neutral soils in the Philippines. 93–97 (1966). PubMed Google Scholar. Why apply Zinc to Rice Common symptoms include increased rates of diarrhea. Jurinak, J. J. and Inouye, T. S., Some aspects of zinc and copper phosphate formation in aqueous systems. Chapman, H. D., Zinc In Diagnostic Criteria for Plant and Soils. 24, 301–307 (1967). Department of Agriculture, University of Queensland, Australia, You can also search for this author in Our results with rice seeds reveals that Zinc nanoparticle (Zn NP) caused increase of radicle and plumule length in rice. However at pH 4.5 the same concentrations of acetic acid reduced uptake by more than 90 per cent. Addition of cellulose to the soil raised bicarbonate concentrations substantially and organic acid concentrations slightly. No. Yoshida, S. and Tanaka, A., Zinc deficiency of the rice plant in calcareous soils. Many studies have identified Zn-efficient rice genotypes, but causal mechanisms for Zn deficiency tolerance remain poorly understood. Bull. Soil factors associated with the deficiency, Plant and Soil Zinc deficiency affects around 17% of the world’s population, mostly in developing countries. Results of the present study indicate that transient peaks in the concentration of bicarbonate and possibly of organic acids in the soil solution following soil submergence may induce temporary zinc deficiencies. Annual Report for 1969. Sta., No. Zinc deficiency is a particular problem in rice because of the chemistry of submerged rice paddy soils, which results in Zn being extremely insoluble in many rice soils and therefore hard for the plants to … Zinc (Zn) deficiency in rice has been widely reported in many rice-growing regions of the world. Symptoms appear between two to four weeks after transplanting. Could using a new type of flour in cooking help tackle this deficiency? Sc.) Soil Sci. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Zinc (Zn) deficiency is the most prevalent micronutrient disorder in rice and leads to delayed development and decreased yield. The identification of Zn-deficiency tolerant rice lines indicates that breeding might overcome these constraints. Tanaka, A., Shimono, K. and Ishizuka, Y., (Zinc deficiency as the cause of the “Akagare” in the rice plants).