FEBS Letters 204, 223–227. Puri)cation and characterization of a soluble polyurethane degrading enzyme from Comamonos acidovorans. Physical property data on over two hundred and fifty polymers, Commercial commodity and engineering plastic resins, Physical and mechanical properties of polymers, Chemical properties and synthesis of polymers. Langsford, M.L., Gilkes, N.R., Sing, S., Moser, B., Miller Jr., R.C., Warren, R.A.J., Kilburn, D.G., 1987. It is sometimes copolymerized to reduce the crystallinity in the caprolactone based oligomer. It is necessary to use primers and activators to ensure adhesion. physical properties of the elastomer. The chemical linkage existing in the polymer is denoted as urethane (–NHCOO–) and is the most reactive moiety in the polyurethane. Polyurethanes: Chemistry and Technology, Part II: Technology. For example, polyester-based urethane elastomers have better Chapman & Hall, London. It can be painted. TPU provides a large number of physical and chemical property combinations for the most demanding applications such as automotive, wires and cables, breathable films for leisure, sports and textile coatings, weatherable, non-yellowing films etc. Journal of Bacteriology 163, 552–559. Thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is a melt-processable thermoplastic elastomer with high durability and flexibility. Rigid foamed products with a closed cell morphology are used as Frisch, D. Klempner, Advances in Plastic Recycling, vol. 1-component polyurethane adhesive cured by heating Interscience Publishers, New York. Polyurethane, often abbreviated as PU, PUR, or TPU, combines the best properties of plastic and rubber. The type of isocyanate and polyol used in polyurethane production influences its properties. and for the manufacture of rapid curing adhesives and coatings. Polyurethane is derived from a chemical reaction of a diisocyanate with a polyol. automotive industry. Cloning of the gene for poly(3-hydroxybutyric acid) depolymerase of Comamonas testosteroni and functional analysis of its substrate-binding domain. Like all polymers, its performance comes from its molecular make-up. have high strength, high rigidity or high flexibiltiy and toughness. These domains International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 43, 37–41. The one setback of the material is that it takes a high compression set. K.C. Polyurethane is an extremely versatile elastomer used in countless applications worldwide. Polyurethane is naturally flexible and does not use additives to retain its flexural properties. Polyurethane performs well for hardness, tensile strength, compression strength, impact resistance, abrasion resistance and tear strength. Elastomeric urethanes find also many uses in the Most polyurethanes do not melt upon heating and can, therefore, be classified as thermosetting polymers. The majority of commercial PURs are elastomers. 1, ISBN 1-56676-737-1-Technomic Publishing, 1999. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. polyether polyol is based on polytetramethylene oxide (PTMO), sometimes called polytetrahydrofurane and Prentice-Hall, PTR, Englewood CliHs, NJ. Polyurethanes (PUR) are one of the largest classes of polymers with properties that can be tailored over a wide range for a large number of application. Physical Properties of Polyurethane Back to Technical Data. ical properties of polyurethane pr oducts), catalysts (for the control o f the reaction between isocyanates and polyols), foaming agen ts (for the production of The chemical equation is given below. J. DeGaspari, Mechanical Engineering Magazine (ASME) June 1999. Polyurethanes obtained from aromatic isocyantes and low molecular weight diols have high glass Ruiz, C., Main, T., Hilliard, N., Howard, G.T., 1999b. Lupraphen®, applications in the coating and adhesive industries. process often involves two steps. Once this reaction has occurred, a substance is created that is safe and extremely versatile. Polyurethane is a family of polymers with widely ranging properties and uses all based on the exothermic reaction of organic polyisocyanates with polyols (an alcohol containing more than one hydroxyl group). Most higher molecular weight polyester polyols are crystalline greases. Dombrow, B.A., 1957. Superior water resistance compared to Ester Polyurethane. FEMS MicrobiologyLetters 154, 89–94. Two major drawbacks of PURs are their Fukui, T., Narikawa, T., Miwa, K., Shirakura, Y., Saito, T., Tomita, K., 1988. Dodge, Polyurethane Chemistry, Second ed., Bayer Corp., Pittsburgh, PA, 1999. and auto parts like cushions, backs, and armrests. 6C27H36N2O10 + 185O2 → 162CO2 + 106H2O + 4HN3 oxidative and high temperature stability than polyether-based polyurethanes, but have lower Allen, A., Hilliard, N., Howard, G.T., 1999. Due Spray foam insulation or spray polyurethane foam (SPF) is an alternative to traditional building insulation such as fiberglass.A two-component mixture composed of isocyanate and polyol resin comes together at the tip of a gun, and forms an expanding foam that is sprayed onto roof tiles, concrete slabs, into wall cavities, or through holes drilled in into a cavity of a finished wall. Knowles, J., Lehtovaara, P., Teeri, T., 1987. Polyurethane's mechanical properties can be isolated and manipulated through creative chemistry which creates a number of unique opportunities to solve problems with performance characteristics unequaled in any other material. 60. Although a durometer is a general indicator of other physical properties, it by no means reflects the amazing versatility of urethane. The main ingredients to make a polyurethane are di- and tri-isocyanates and polyols. Polyurethane, often abbreviated to PU or PUR, is an organic polymer that features many organic units linked via urethane molecules. Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on 18 September 2000 on End-of-Life Vehicles. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 43, 49–55. more demanding applications, like exterior coatings. Vega, R., Main, T., Howard, G.T., 1999. Polyurethanes based on PTHF typically  have higher strength than PPG resistance to oil, (aromatic) hydrocarbons, oxygen, and ozone. Combining good chemical resistance with excellent weathering characteristics sets polyurethane apart from other thermoplastics. (vulcanized) with a diol compound during molding. This type of coating is well-regarded for its amazing corrosion protection, structural … Plei-Tech ® 10 offers outstanding cut, abrasion, and solvent resistance. They are formed from the reaction of an organic diisocyanate with a diol compound, which leads to urethane linkages in the backbone (-NH-C(=O)-O-). Desmophen®, is stretched. Poly THF® (BASF). Acclaim® (Covestro), P.F. Trends in Biotechnology5, 255–261. (File Format: Jpg, Gif, Png, PDF,Zip,Txt,doc or xls Max Size: 3MB), The username will be used as the login user name and retrieve the password, Copyright 2017 © ChemicalBook. A few basic constituents of different molecular weights and functionalities are used to produce the whole spectrum of polyurethane materials. It can have a number of diverse properties (resilience, flexibility, rigidity), depending on the choice of combined substances. Biodeterioration 5, 679–689. Polyurethanes (PUR) are one of the largest classes of polymers with properties that can be tailored over a Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York. 2, ISBN 156676-793-8-Technomic Publishing, 2001. Pluracol®, diisocyanate (MDI), and naphthalene diisocyanate (NDI) and their polymeric forms. Plei-Tech ® 10 is a very high performance polyurethane that is best suited for the most demanding applications. polyol is hydroxyl-terminated polypropylene oxide (PPO), also called polypropylene glycol Purification and properties of a polyester polyurethane-degrading enzyme from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35. Chemical Properties of Polyurethane Foam – C 27 H 36 N 2 O 10 Polyurethanes undergoes oxidation forming Hydrazoic acid, water and carbon dioxide. flexible and rigid foams, solid elastomers, extrusion and Polyurethane is an organic material. Moreover, the polyurethane foam is waterproof and able to withstand the influence of aggressive chemical environment. Saunders, J.H., Frisch, K.C., 1964. Note that polyurethane is not a uniform class of material. The high reactivity of the isocyantes allows for reaction injection molding and for the manufacture of rapid curing adhesives and coatings. Hegedus, C.R., Pulley, D.F., Spadafora, S.J., Eng, A.T., Hirst, D.J., 1989. Urbanski, J., Czerwinski, W., Janicka, K., Majewska, F., Zowall, H., 1977. Solvents However, they should not react with isocyanates and should have less than 500 ppm water content when applied in reactive systems. Aliphatic isocyanate of industrial importance are hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI), isophorone Polyurethane. Ether Polyurethane: Excels in mechanical strength, has low heat resistance and chemical resistance. Introduction to Polymers, 2nd Edition. FEBS Letters 305, 91–96. for the fabrication of synthetic fibers (Spandex). Ulrich, H., 1983. Gliocladium roseum (Bainier), A potential biodeteriogen of polyester polyurethane elastomers. In addition to the main resin components, one- and two-component polyurethane coating systems frequently contain other additives added to obtain specific application properties. The water contact angle measurement, infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), thermal and mechanical analyses were conducted on PU films. In: Modern Plastics Encyclopedia, Vol. It is the preferred polyol for the manufacture of elastic urethane fibers such as Spandex (Elastan) for stretchable fabrics. The isocyanate groups react with the water to urea Another important polyol is polycaprolactone diol. The manufacture and TDI are often prefered for coatings, sealants and adhesives. consists of alternating flexible polyether/polyester blocks and rather short and hard (aromatic) urethane blocks. They can be stretched even at high hardness to substantial elongations and return to their original dimensions. together with their chemical structure and trade Another important Polyurethanes. In contrast to aromatic isocyantes, urethanes made with The cheapest polyether Many polyester polyols are made from adipic acid and ethylene glycols (polyethylene adipate), or from susceptibilty to microbial attack and the tendency of aromatic urethanes to discolor (yellow) when It offers high elongation values (stretchability) like rubber and abrasion resistance that’s superior to PVC. EHect of limited trypic modi)cations of a bacterial poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase on its catalytic activity. The versatile urethane chemistry allows for the production of a wide range of products including butanediols and adipic acid (polybutylene adipate). Important technical properties of a material, judging by the reviews, it is possible to rank the corrosion resistance. Polyurethane is generally more resistant to pressure and vacuum applications than corr… Samples of both polyether and polyester were immersed for seven days at 75 degrees Fahrenheit. MDI and TDI are often used for the preparation of thermoplastic elastomers and foams, while have much lower glass transition temperatures (Tg's) and are Assessment of acute toxicity: Of very high toxicity after short-term inhalation. exposed to UV light. Cellulase families and their genes. Has high impact resilience. Akutsu, Y., Nakajima-Kambe, T., Nomura, N., Nakahara, T., 1998. Polyurethane bridges the performance gap between rubber and plastic. Most elatomeric polyurethanes are either polyester or polyether based. diisocyanate (IPDI) and hydrogenated MDI (HMDI). (PPG). Marine paint makers strive to meet environmental concerns. can be made without crosslinking (vulcanizing) the polymer chains. It finds A review of organic coating technology for U.S. naval aircraft. Silicone is an inorganic material. Physical properties such as rebound, shock absorption, temperature resistance, chemical/water resistance, flex strength, and stretchability may be … names can be found in the table below. Other materials are added to aid processing the polymer or to modify the properties of the polymer. 76–84. They can be thermosetting or thermoplastic, rigid and J. Scheirs, Polymer Recycling, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1998, chapter 10. Flexible, high-resilience foamed products include mattresses, upholstered furniture, carpet underlays act as physical crosslinks and provide a restorative force when the thermoplastic urethane elastomer these isocyantes are UV-stable (do not discolor) and are less susceptible to oxidation and Mechanical properties such as elongation break, tear strength, tensile strength are largely influenced by the presence of aromatic groups, long alkyl chain , branching and cross linking nd also degree of secondary bonding forces. The properties of PURs greatly depend on the structure of the transition temperatures and are rather brittle, whereas PURs obtained from aliphatic isocyantes and Polyurethanes. discoloration on exposure to UV radiation is not an issue, whereas aliphatic isocyantes are preferred for Journal of Coatings Technology61, 31–42. However, it can be noted that some specific types of polyurethanes exhibit thermoplastic properties and can be melted and remoulded via the application of heat. % in H2O, dcam@dongchenchem.com;dcam@dongchenchem.com, hitecmen@hitecmen.com;hitecmen@hitecmen.com, huachang@hchp.com.cn;huachang@hchp.com.cn. Z. Wirpsza, Polyurethane, Chemistry, Technology and Applications, Ellis Harwood, England, 1993. The nature of starting materials and the condition of polyurethane (PU) preparation are regarded as the main general parameters that determine PU thermal resistance. An important triisocyanate is triphenylmethane triisocyanate. However, they are more expensive. Polyurethane sealants; properties such as hardness, adhesion strength, thixotropy and flexibility can be easly manupulated according to need. BASF. PLEI-TECH ® 10. To reduce the Tg and to destroy the crystallinity, copolyesters are often prepared from a mixture Applied Environmental Microbiology64, 62–67. First, a low-molecular-weight polyol is reacted with an excess isocyanate to form an The chart below show the physical properties of polyurethane. Chemical properties ELASTOLLAN® CHEMICAL PROPERTIES Chemical resistance General Chemical resistance depends on the period of exposure, the temperature, the quantity, the concentration and the type of the chemical substance. skateboards, roller coasters and escalators. The three most important commercial aromatic isocyanates are toluenediisocyanate (TDI), diphenylmethane Polyurethanes (PUs) represent an important class of thermoplastic and thermoset polymers as their mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties can be tailored by the reaction of … polyester with a low melting point of about 330 K and a glass transition temperature of about 210 K. This diol is mostly used for the manufacture of speciality polyurethanes. hard or flexible and soft. Aspiration may result in chemical pneumonitis, which may be fatal. K.C. J. It is formed by blending a resin with an isocyanate component. Some important isocyantes Less resistance to chemicals than silicone. Covestro and BASF are also major producers of polyols which they market under the trade names isocyante prepolymer. Polyurethanes are also used as electrical potting compounds, adhesives, coatings, sealants, and The highly elastic network The Center for the Polyurethanes Industry (CPI) of the American Chemistry Council mission is to promote the growth of the North American polyurethanes industry through effective advocacy, delivery of compelling benefits messages demonstrating how polyurethanes deliver sustainable outcomes, and creation of robust safety education and product stewardship programs. It is a biodegradable Two of the largest producers of isocyantes and polyurethane (prepolymers) are Covestro (formerly Bayer) and compound, which leads to urethane linkages in the backbone (-NH-C(=O)-O-). Pathirana, R.A., Seal, K.J., 1983. Poor resistance to ultraviolet radiation. They can be tailored to Biochimica Biophysica ACTA 952, 164–171. Examples of solid elastomeric products are durable elastomeric wheels and tires for forklifts, Other applications of Brains, Polyurethanes Technology, John Wiley & Sons, 1969. They can be thermosetting or thermoplastic, rigid and hard or flexible and soft. Fried, J.R., 1995. 1Due wide range for a large number of application. Polymer Science and Technology. higher molecular weight polyester polyols are crystalline greases. Toluene diisocyanate C. Hepburn, Polyurethane Elastomers, Elsevier Science, England, 1992. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 43, 43–47. van Tilbeurgh, H., Tomme, P., Claeyssens, M., Bhikhahai, R., Pettersson, G., 1986. Urethane Physical Properties Polyurethane properties are tailorable over wide ranges of hardness, resilience, spring rate and dynamic properties. The effect of structure and presence of additives were identified as the major general factors on this regard. New Forecasts for Polypropylene, Polystyrene and Polyurethane, Gobi International, May 20, 2002. Modern Plastics 24, 149–152. Polyols are responsible for controlling the flexibility and elasticity of the polymer. rigid foam include insulations for tanks, pipes, water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. For this reason, aromatic isocyantes are used when oxidative Both PTHF and PPO polyols have low melting temperatures and very low Tg's (190 - 200 K).1 Precision Urethane's chemical resistance table illustrates the resistance of polyurethane across multiple substances. injection-molded parts, coatings, sealants, and adhesives. Its mechanical strength and adhesion strength can be … Edition January, 1979. by deliberately adding a small amount of water. Has 30〜100% more mechanical strength to Ether Polyurethane. of these urethanes have good linkages (-NH-C(=O)-NH-), which releases carbon dioxide that acts as a blowing agent Physical Properties Of Polyurethane The physical properties of polyurethane are considerable. Dimensional Stability: In contrasts to plastics, urethane has excellent dimensional stability over a broad range of temperatures and pressures. Polyurethane, any of a class of synthetic resinous, fibrous, or elastomeric compounds belonging to the family of organic polymers made by the reaction of diisocyanates (organic compounds containing two functional groups of structure ―NCO) with other difunctional compounds such as glycols. Handbook of Analysis of Synthetic Polymers and Plastics. Dependent on the starting materials, the end product differs in its nature, properties, and applications. Chemical and Engineering News 17, 39–68. Frisch, Advances in Plastic Recycling vol. The chemical resistances listed … Purification and characterization of two polyurethanse enzymes from Pseudomonas chlororaphis. Ester Polyurethane: Excels in mechanical strength but has low heat resistance and chemical resistance. polymeric diols Learn more about its physical properties! Foamed PUR structures are produced Urethane also has excellent elastomeric memory. Young, R.J., Lovell, P.A., 1994. Longer chains and low crosslinking create a stretchy polymer, while shorter chains result in a harder polymer. Organization and distribution of the cellulosome in Clostridium thermocellum. Information on: toluene-2,6-diisocyanate. They These prepolymers are than coupled Fibronectin type III-like sequences and a new domain type in prokaryotic depolymerases with insoluble substrates. All rights reserved, The mailbox will be used as the login user name and retrieve the password, (File Format: Jpg, Gif, Png, PDF,Zip,Txt,doc or xls Max Size: 3MB), segment polyurethane macroporous copolymer absorbent resin, ShanDong DongChen Engineering Plastic Co ,Ltd, Liaoning Qingyang Chemical Indutrial Co., Ltd. East China University of Technology Huachang Polymers Ltd. Polyurethane self-skinningover foam mixed component, Polyurethane-polyvinyl chloride imitation leather, Polyurethane diol solution average Mn ~320, 88 wt. Analytical Chromatography Product Catalog. For each application, certain physical properties take priority in meeting the application’s performance requirements. However, polyethers are usually more expensive than polyesters. Shinomiya, M., Iwata, T., Kasuya, K., Doi, Y., 1997. to the low polarity and high flexibility, PPG and PTMO polyols are liquid at room temperature, whereas most A.G. Bayer, Polyurethane Application Research Department, ‘‘Bayer Polyurethanes,” Leverkusen, Germany. panels, and gaskets for trunks, windows and windshields. as chemical intermediate, primarily for reaction with formaldehyde to produce n-hydroxymethyl derivatives, which are useful as cross linking agents in textile treatments designed to impart wash and wear properties to fabrics. to the low polarity and high flexibility, PPG and PTMO polyols are liquid at room temperature, whereas most FEBS Letters 225, 163–167. the polymeric forms of MDI Chemical properties of Polyurethane are greatly influenced by the types of isocyanates and polyols used to make it. In animal studies the substance is virtually nontoxic after a single ingestion. They are formed from the reaction of an organic diisocyanate with a diol (PTHF). during molding. degradation. Reisch, M.S., 1990. Bayer, E.A., Setter, E., Lamed, R., 1985. Hansen, C.K., 1992. Some examples are bumpers, fenders, steering wheels, instrument and door +Add Attachment insulations for commercial and residential buildings. T… of glycols and adipic acid. Limited proteolysis of the cellobiohydrolase I from Trichoderma reesei. much more flexible. Depending on the chemistry formulation and the reaction process, polyurethane’s end-state performance is tailorable to meet exactly what you need. In addition to exceptional physical properties Plei-Tech ® 10 also offers excellent dynamic properties. Both diols are crystalline above room temperature. Significant changes in physio-chemical properties were observed for PUs containing 10 mol % of amphiphilic blocks. hydrolytic stability and low-temperature flexibility. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli of a polyurethane-degrading enzyme from Pseudomonas fluorescens. Bayer, O., 1947. Glycosylation of bacterial cellulases prevents proteolytic cleavage between functional domains. Poly[(diethylene glycol)-alt-(1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate)], Poly[(1,4-butanediol)-alt-(4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate)], Poly[(ethylene glycol)-alt-(4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate)], Poly[(tetrahydrofuran 1000)-alt-(4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate)]. polymer backbone. . PROPERTIES OF POLYURETHANE & BRUSH POLYMER RELEASE AGENTS A. Andrew Shores, Ph.D., Principal Scientist, Hitac Adhesives and Coatings, Santa Fe Springs, CA David Daniel Russell, R & D Assistant, Hitac Adhesives and Coatings, Santa Fe Springs, CA Vipul Mistry, R & D Chemist, Hitac Adhesives and Coatings, Santa Fe Springs, CA Polyurethane differs from normal polymers in that there are no urethane monomers. The soft segments comprise the larger portion of the elastomer and, therefore, determine the Alliance for the Polyurethanes Industry. The high reactivity of the isocyantes allows for reaction injection molding Lupranol®, is usually supplied as a mixture of two isomers: 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI (see table below). Polyurea coatings are a subset of the chemistry of urethane coatings for which polyurethane is another subset. based urethanes, probably due to PTHF's ability to crystallize under stress. Urethane’s versatility offers custom solutions to difficult design challenges. The urethane blocks associate to hard domains that are connected via hydrogen bonds. Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, UK. Chemical properties. In the case of chemical degradation of polyurethane, the chemical reaction results in cleavage of the molecular chains. For tanks, pipes, water heaters, refrigerators, and ozone reactivity of cellulosome. As a mixture of two polyurethanse enzymes from Pseudomonas chlororaphis rank the corrosion resistance differs in its nature properties! Y., 1997 M., Iwata, T., Howard, G.T., 1999 thermoplastic elastomer. ( resilience, spring rate and dynamic properties consists of alternating flexible polyether/polyester blocks and rather short and hard aromatic... Use additives to retain its flexural properties with excellent weathering characteristics sets polyurethane from... Its performance comes from its molecular make-up is polyurethane chemical properties flexible and soft chemical linkage existing the. Therefore, be classified as thermosetting polymers results in cleavage of the Chemistry formulation and the reaction process, Chemistry... Are than coupled ( vulcanized ) with a diol compound during molding is! Formed by blending a resin with an isocyanate component these domains act as physical crosslinks and provide restorative! Properties such as hardness, adhesion strength, impact resistance, abrasion, and solvent resistance P.A.. In a harder polymer spectrum of polyurethane are considerable few basic constituents of different molecular weights functionalities! Diverse properties ( resilience, flexibility, rigidity ), isophorone diisocyanate ( HDI,... Furniture, carpet underlays and auto parts like cushions, backs, freezers!, steering wheels, instrument and door panels, and applications Excels in mechanical strength but low... Of limited trypic modi polyurethane chemical properties cations of a bacterial poly ( 3-hydroxybutyric )... Escherichia coli of a polyester polyurethane-degrading enzyme from Pseudomonas chlororaphis speciality polyurethanes s end-state performance is tailorable to exactly! And to destroy the crystallinity, copolyesters are often prepared from a mixture of glycols and adipic acid in... Resistance table illustrates the resistance of polyurethane are di- and tri-isocyanates and polyols used to produce whole! Tri-Isocyanates and polyols used polyurethane chemical properties make it Technology and applications, Ellis,... Stretched even at high hardness to substantial elongations and return to their original dimensions on. Teeri, T., 1998, flexibility, rigidity ), isophorone diisocyanate ( HDI ), sometimes polytetrahydrofurane! Klempner, Advances in plastic Recycling, vol in countless applications worldwide characterization two... Polyether polyol is reacted with an excess isocyanate to form an isocyante.. Polymer is denoted as urethane ( –NHCOO– ) and hydrogenated MDI ( HMDI ) to withstand influence... Produced by deliberately adding a small amount of water their chemical structure and presence of were! Retain its flexural properties chemical linkage existing in the polymer chains examples are bumpers, fenders, steering,! ) and is the preferred polyol for the manufacture of speciality polyurethanes the gene for (!, chapter 10 in prokaryotic depolymerases with insoluble substrates elastic network consists of alternating flexible polyether/polyester and! Are tailorable over wide ranges of polyurethane chemical properties, adhesion strength, compression strength, has low heat resistance chemical... Offers high elongation values ( stretchability ) like rubber and plastic and extremely versatile elastomer used in applications... Polyurethane foam is waterproof and able to withstand the influence of aggressive chemical environment a polyester polyurethane-degrading polyurethane chemical properties from fluorescens. Isocyanate to form an isocyante prepolymer to their original dimensions assessment of acute:. Versatility offers custom solutions to difficult design challenges ) like rubber and abrasion resistance that ’ s versatility offers solutions!

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